This is the paper presented by John Hawkins at the 1997 Pipes Family reunion in North Carolina. We thank John for taking the time to put the new information into a readable format.   THANKS John!!


The following information has come to light regarding the Pipes family history since the publication of the book THE DESCENDANTS OF HIRAM PIPES OF WILKES COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA. Most of it has been collected by Bob Pipes of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, who has gained his information from personal research and by corresponding with various people.


The early history of the Pipes family in America is still murky. On 5 July 1665, David Pipes signed over 100 acres (1 right) of land to John Smith in exchange for transportation to America. The land is signed over by Ralph Williams for David and three others. In 1697, Capt. William Pipes was listed as the owner of a ship being built in Maryland. On 28 August 1728, Elizabeth Pipes, widow of Timothy Parker, married J. Lucas in New York. Elizabeth has not been identified. It is not known if these people are ancestors or relatives of the Pipes family or not.


The earliest confirmed ancestor is John Pipes Sr., born 1710-20, place unknown. He married Susanna Hathaway, born 16 January 1712, daughter of Abraham Hathaway, on 3 October 1735, in Berkley, Bristol County, Massachusetts. Abraham sold his property in Massachusetts in 1736, one year after John and Susanna were married, and he shows up in Morristown, N. J., later in the same year. The Hathaway family continues to be associated with the Pipes family in New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

On 25 February 1746, William Plumstead offered a reward for the jailing of four men who had run away from the ship, "Westmoreland." One of the men was John Pipes. It seems highly unlikely that this is the John Pipes who appears later in New Jersey, but it more than likely someone else, perhaps a British sailor with the same name. The item appeared in Benjamin Franklin's newspaper, "Pennsylvania Gazette." William Plumstead was a wealthy man who dealt in the slave trade and was at one time Mayor of Philadelphia.

There are unverified stories that some of John's and Susanna's children, particularly Windsor, were born in Philadelphia. Windsor was born 16 September 1740. In July 1750 John Pipes Sr. In Morris Co., N. J., was convicted of counterfeiting money. On 8 September 1750 attached to a will of Stephen Thompson, a blacksmith, of Rockaway Township, there is a business firm called Pipes and Brown. On 20 September 1751, John Pipes Sr., Elizabethtown N. J., was arrested for a felony committed in the house of Edward Thomas on Sunday, September 15, 1751. The offense is not stated.

The records of the original Presbyterian Church of Rockaway, Morris County, N. J., show that John Pipes contributed one pound toward founding the church and calling a minister: "March 2d, 1758. We the subscribers do by these mannerfest it to be our deseir to Joyn with Porsipaney to call and settel a minnister, to have the one half of the preachen at prosipaney and the other half at rockaway, and each part to be eakwel in payen a minnester. (signed) John pipes, ....John Harriman .... John gobbel.... John Cogswell.

A second document was recorded the same day: "We the Inhabitants of rockaway, pigen hill and upper inhabitence at the colonial forges and places agesant, being met together in order to consult together about a place to set a meeitng hous, and being all well agreed that the most sutable place for the hol setelments is upon the small plain a letel above bemans forg, which is below the first small brok upon that rode up to Samuel Johnson, and we the subscriers a blig ourselves to pay toward building a house at that place that sums to ournames afixed: ... John Pipes, L1 ... John Harriman, L3 ... John Gobel ... 10s ... John Cogswell, L1... "

In September 1760, John Pipes and adult sons "Winsur" and John Pipes Jr. Were among the signers of an "Obligation to pay minister by rate."

Lois Thurston of Chelsea, Maine, who is working on a history of the Harriman family furnishes the following information: "Sometime before or around 1770, the Pipes family left New Jersey. Windsor moved to Pennsylvania and John Sr. and the other three sons moved to Surry County, North Carolina. In 1771, Windsor sold his land in Pennsylvania and joined the family in North Carolina." A Greene Co., PA., deed shows that Windsor owned land on Smith Creek, south of Waynesburg, which he sold in 1771.

An interesting but unconfirmed story concerns the Pipes, the Hathaways and other families leaving New Jersey and heading to southwest Pennsylvania. They were attacked by Indians along a river and had to turn back. It has been speculated that this is the time when Joseph Pipes, son of John Jr. and Jemima (Harriman) was kidnapped and that perhaps Jemima was killed by the Indians. The next year some of the same group made another attempt and this time they were successful.

Abner Pipes was listed on the 1771 Surry County, N. C., tax list, the only time he appears. John Pipes Jr. appears in 1771, but does not appear in the Surry County records again until 1780. Phillip appears for the first time in 1772. In September 1771, George Soelle, early Moravian minister, made a trip to "Pipes house" in "Allen's settlement." He remarked: "The settlers here are all Irish, a robbed and plundered people, where poverty makes itself at home .... My host received me gladly and cared for me as well as he could; milk and corn bread was the fare practically all the time I was there, and not enough of that." [From the Moravian Records.] Recorded in Pascal's History of North Carolina Baptists :... John Pipes invited Moravian missionary, George Soelle, to visit Baptists east of Yadkin... "found Pipes forty miles distant in new settlement on Deep Creek."

The name of John Pipes appears in the Surry County records from 1771 until about 1796. Sometimes the name designated Senior or Junior and sometimes it stands alone. John Pipes Sr. may have left Surry County in November 1783 and moved to South Carolina at that time. There may have been some family difficulty as none of the witnesses to the 25 November l783 deed to Humphrey Cockran are members of the Pipes family.

A speculation as to the reason could be that John Sr. had married a much younger woman, Priscilla. [Susannah (Hathaway) Pipes must have died prior to this time.] This is evidenced by their having four females in the household in the 1790 Spartanburg, County, South Carolina, census, possibly a wife and three daughters. By 1800 there is only one female aged 16-26 in the household other than the two adults assumed to be John and Priscilla. In 1790, John would have been approximately 80 years of age. John Pipes acquired his land on 6 April 1795 from John Boley in Spartanburg County for one Spanish millled dollar, 200 acres on Sholey Creek. Since 200 acres would be worth more than one Spanish milled dollar, there is a possibility that John Pipes is the son-in-law of John Boley, and that the deed is a gift deed. There is a John Boling in Surry County only a few miles from John Pipes Sr., and the said John Boling disappears from Surry County in the 1780's. Perhaps he and John Pipes moved from Surry County to South Carolina at the same time. The name is sometimes spelled Bowling . .

John Pipes Sr. wrote his will on 18 November 1804 leaving all his movable and unmovable property to his wife, Priscilla, and after her death to his daughter, Sally Pipes. On the reverse of the will is the notation "not proven." Thomas Walling applied for administration 27 March 1805. Rather than a certification of the citation being recorded on the reverse is the following: "We the legatees of the deceased John Pipes have met amongst ourselves considering that the cost would out do the profit and put a poor old widow to suffer in her old days .... Thomas Walling, Benjamin Lewis, Sally Pipes." It was signed on 28 March 1805. Priscilla Pipes probably died about 1814. On 14 April 1814, Absalom Roe, Sally Roe, and Benjamin Lewis, sold land to Edmund Bishop on Sholey Creek, a branch of Lauson's Fork of the Pacolet River, "part of 200 acres deeded to Sally Roe by her father, John Pipes."

The children of John Pipes Sr. and his first wife, Susanna, appear to be:

1-1 John Pipes Jr., born 1737-39, married (1) Jemima Harriman (2) Mary Morris.

1-2 Windsor Pipes, born 16 September 1740, married Jane McAfee.

1-3 Abner Pipes, born about 1742, married Mary...

1-4 Susanna Pipes married Samuel Carter.

1-5 Phillip Pipes.

1-6 Sylvanus Pipes.

[The births or the last three children are approximate. Susanna is in court in 1771 on a charge of fornication. Phillip first appears on the Surry County tax list in 1772. Sylvanus apparently married in the mid-1770's. There may have been other unidentified children.]

The children of John and Priscilla appear to be:

1-7 Daughter who married Thomas Walling.

1-9 Daughter who married Benjamin Lewis.

1-9 Sarah Pipes who married Absalom Rowe.


Information about John Pipes Jr. is more readily available, but as with his father, John Pipes Sr., there are many family stories and much which has to be concluded by circumstantial evidence. John Pipes Jr. is thought to have been born between 1736-40. Since his parents marriage date has been determined, it is safe to assume that a 1737-38 birth date is close to being correct. He is thought to be the oldest son. If he is born as late as 1738, it is possible that there was an older child, born about 1736 who may have died or who has not been identified.

His brother, Windsor, was born 16 September 1740. John Pipes Jr. first appears on a known public record in 1760 when he along with his father and his brother, Windsor, signed a petition to help support a Presbyterian minister. It must have been about this time that he married Jemima Harriman, born about 1740, daughter of John Harriman who had also signed a 1758 petition with John Pipes Sr. to organize a Presbyterian Church in Rockaway, New Jersey. Harriman's wife was Mariam Blackman/Blockman.

John Pipes Jr. And his brother, Windsor, are mentioned in Morris County, New Jersey, as late as 1767 when John Pipes signs a mortgage with John Harriman who is probably the brother of Jemima.

In Tryon Co. North Carolina, Land Warrants 1768-74 abstracted by Miles Philbeck, Windsor Pipes claims "... 150 acres on Little Broad River beginning at Roaring Shoal, running up river, and lying between Fisher's and Lusk's land. Warrant 4-58, 15 December 1769." The completion or disposition of this land has not been traced, but it would seem to indicate that Windsor was the first Pipes in North Carolina, and he was there before going to Pennsylvania.

John Pipes Jr. next appears in Surry County, North Carolina, on the 1771 tax list with his father and his brother, Abner Pipes. He does not appear again until 1780. A undated land entry #2023, which apparently was never completed, was entered by John Pipes on Hanes' "adjoining David Harriman." According to her father's will, Jemima had a brother named David. Jemima Pipes died sometime after her father's will was written 7 September 1767, and before her husband's second marriage to Mary Morris on 23 August 1777. When her father's will is proved on 21 October 1772, it is indicated that "Eldest daughter, Jemima, shall have all the things I lent her." It is not stated that Jemima is living, and it would not be necessary since she and consequently her children if she were deceased, would have already received their share of John Harriman's estate.

Jemima may have died in North Carolina, and John returned to New Jersey taking some of his children with him. There is also an unverified story that John Pipes rode a horse from Georgia to Surry County, North Carolina, carrying an infant child with him. John Pipes was a member of the Morristown, New Jersey, militia before 1775. Several Harrimans, possibly brothers-in-law were also in the group.

He then enlisted for two terms in the Continental Army, and after retirement he volunteered again to fight as a member of the militia. John Pipes Jr. was included in a "List of Associatiors " of Pequanock Township, New Jersey, who signed a document in 1776 agreeing to act "according to the resolution of the afore said Continental and Provincial Congress...... He also signed "Remonstrance to the Provincial Congress Concerning Appointments of Officers in the Third Batallion" datd 7 February 1776.

John Pipes enlisted as a First Lieutenant in "Heard's Brigade." On June 14th, 1776, he was listed as a Second Lieutenant, Continental Army. In August 1776 he was a lst Lieutenant in Captain Sylvanus Seely's Company, Colonel Ephraim Martin's Regiment, Brigadier General Nathaniel Heard's Brigade, State Troops. He was at the battles of Long Island, New York, on August 27 1776, and White Plains, New York, October 28, 1776.

Bob Pipes states, "Mary Morris Pipes testified [in her pension request] that, one year before their marriage in 1777 'Mr. Pipes was then acting under the commission of Lieutenant during the service in New Jersey. He was sometimes attached to Cummens' and Dayton's regiment. Before his marriage, Mr. Pipes commanded a company and was in the Battle of Ticonderoga. He served 1 year and received his discharge."

"Captain John likely served under Generals Benedict Arnold, Horatio Gates, or Phillip Schuyler in a series of battles for control of Fort Ticonderoga. The fight ranged from Crown Point near Quebec up and down Lake Champlain into New York and Vermont. During this campaign, Arnold built a navy which was defeated by a much larger British force. While Arnold, Schuyler, and Gates lost the battles, they held off British General Guy Carleton until winter forced him to retire to Quebec.

"A general order from Colonel Ephraim Wheelock's orderly book, dated Headquarters Ticonderoga, September 18, 1776, said that "Pipes, 2nd Lieutenant, was appointed 1st Lieutenant, Captain Conway's Company", his Vice (second in command) was listed as a Lieutenant Cartigan. He was a lieutenant in Captain Wade's Company February 17, 17'77, retired. He was a militia first lieutenant in Captain Wade's Company, September 26, 1780. "After he was discharged from the New Jersey Militia in 1776, Captain John Pipes joined the Army of General Washington and was in actual service with him for two years as a regular. Captain John's entire regiment was nearly killed and Washington had more officers than he needed. By now John had been promoted to Captain. Later he was offered a chance to return home on half pay but he refused to do so. This offer was made to him by General Washington in person.

Captain John Pipes was in sixteen battles during the war of the Revolution. Bob Pipes states that Capt. John Pipes was probably with General Washington at the Battle of Trenton fought in the wee hours of Christmas Day, 1776 and the Battle of Princeton. John Pipes Jr. may have stayed a widower for several years.

In August 1777, he married Mary Morris, born about 1760, daughter of Nathaniel and Rebecca (Bailey) Morris. Her mother must have died when Mary was very young, because on 24 August 1763, her father married Hopestill Woods. Mary stated in her pension application that her husband was on furlough from Washington's Army then encamped at Elizabethtown.

John Pipes was listed in the "Revolutionary Census of New Jersey for 1778-1780" as a resident of Morris County. Sometime in the year 1779 or 1780 he moved back to North Carolina where his father then lived. In North Carolina he joined the army under Generals Gates and Greene. Captain John was subject to the draft as a minute man, not as a regular. John Pipes was on the "Tax Ratable" list of Morris Township, Morris County, New Jersey for May and June 1778. He was taxed for one homed cow and two pigs. He did not appear on the next extant tax list dated January 1780. The family lived in Surry County, North Carolina, until about 1795 when they moved to Mercer County, Kentucky. The exact number of children John and Jemima (Harriman) had is not known. One source says six sons. Two probable sons and one probable daughter have been identified.

1-1-1 Joseph Pipes, born 17 March 1763, wife not identified.

1-1-2 John Pipes, born about 1766.

1-1-3 Rhoda Pipes married before 1780 Jacob DeCamp. [The parentage of Rhoda is not proven. If she is the daughter of John and Jemima, she may be their oldest child.]

It would appear that after Jemima's death, while John was in the army, that Joseph may have been with his uncle, Windsor Pipes, or other relatives in Washington County, Pennsylvania; John may have been with his relatives in Pennsylvania for part of the time and later with his grandparents in Surry County, North Carolina. He seems to have been with his father in the late 1780's but he is in Washington County about 1794. John Pipes, Jr., does not acknowledge his first family in his will. Mary (Morris) Pipes makes no reference to her husband's previous marriage. There does not seem to have been very much if any communication between the first and second families. John's children by Mary Morris have been identified and traced in THE DESCENDANTS OF JOHN PIPES JR. by Elizabeth P. Ellsberry.


1-1-1 Joseph Pipes, born 17 March 1763, Rockaway Township, New Jersey. His wife has not been identified. One source says that she was a Shawnee Indian; another source says her name was Susan McVay. He may possibly have been married two times. According to his pension request he served in the Revolutionary War. In his request he states that he was held captive by Indians for four years. In 1790 he is in Morris Township, Washington County, PA, where he is listed as "Joshua" and he appears there as late as the 1850 census when his age is given as 84. He died 23 February 1856. There is no female in the correct age bracket to be his wife.

1-1-1-1 John Pipes, born 1787, moved to Knox Co., Ohio.

1-1-1-2 William Pipes, born about 1803, married (1) Nancy Hayden (2) Elizabeth - (3) Sarah, died 28 May 1884, Greene Co., PA.

1-1-1-3 Isaac Pipes, born 1807, married Elizabeth She moved to Morrow Co. Ohio.

1-1-1-4 Jemima Pipes married Henry Scoles on 3 October 1822. Moved to Morrow or Knox counties, Ohio.

1-1-1-5 Elizabeth Pipes, born 1910, married Felix Phillips. Apparently widowed, she is living in Washington Co. with her father in 1850.

1-1-1-6 Ann Pipes, born about 1813, married Miller Blatchley. Apparently widowed, she is living in Washington Co. with her father in 1850.

1-1-1-7 Daniel Pipes married Elizabeth Jolley, moved to Knox Co., Ohio.

1-1-1-8 Rhoda Pipes married William Harrod, moved to Ft. Wayne, Indiana.

1-1-1-9 Mary Pipes married Samuel Thompson, lived in Greene Co., PA.

1-1-1-10 Sarah Pipes married William Douglas, moved to Delaware Co, Ohio.

1-1-1-11 Phebe Pipes married Cornelius Jennings, lived in Greene and Washington counties, PA.

1-1-1-12 Casiah Pipes married David Hayden, moved to Indiana.

1-1-1-13 Malinda Pipes, married Robert McFarland.

1-1-1-14 Joseph Pipes Jr., married Chloe -. She moved to Davenport, IA-

1-1-2 John Pipes,** born about 1766, married Eleanor Slater, born about 1778, in Greene Co., PA. about 1794. Hardin Watkins states that they had the following children:

1-1-2-1 Unknown daughter, born about 1795, possibly a twin to one of the first three sons or born by 1795. Either died or married 1810-20.

1-1-2-2 Abner Pipes, born about 1796, married Ann Brown Boreman. Lived in Tyler Co., WV.

1-1-2-3 Windsor Pipes, born 6 February 1798, married Christina Sappenfield. Lived in Meade Co. Ky.

1-1-2-4 James S. Pipes, born 1 January 1900, married (1) Mary Ann Kent (2) Margaret - (3) Elvira Rinehart. Lived in Franklin Co. (PA?).

1-1-2-5 Unknown daughter, born about 1802.

1-1-2-6 John Pipes, born about l804 married Sarah Cross. Lived in Greene Co, PA

1-1-2-7 Thomas Pipes, born about l806 No other information known.

1-1-2-8 Jemima Pipes, born about 1807/09, married John Morris, a widower, born about 1783. They lived in Greene Co., PA.

1-1-2-9 Isaac Pipes. No other information known. Could this possibly be the same Isaac Pipes who is thought to be Joseph's son?

1-1-2-10 Washington Pipes, born 1818, married Cynthia Ann

** [See related item "The Search for Hiram Pipes" at the end of this publication.]

1-1-3 Rhoda Pipes married before 1780 Jacob DeCamp. The parentage of Rhoda is not proven, but since she has a daughter named Jemima, it would seem that she is the daughter of John and Jemima, perhaps their oldest child. Of course it cannot be overlooked that she had a daughter, Susannah, indicating that she could be the daughter of John Sr. and wife, Susannah. Both Rhoda and Jacob were born in New Jersey. About 1801, they moved to Tompkins Co., New York. The information is furnished by Wilson DeCamp, Vienna, VA, and was taken from Florida Genealogical Records Commission of the DAR.

1-1-3-1 Susannah DeCamp, born 29 December 1780, married David Ross, 2 March 1799, nine children. Susannah died 26 March 1962.

1-1-3-2 Jemima DeCamp, born 16 November 1784, married John Freese, one child.

1-1-3-3 Sally DeCamp married Balknap, five children.

1-1-3-4 Betsy DeCamp married Herman Ward.

1-1-3-5 Abraham DeCamp, born 28 November 1799, married Abigail Butler, thirteen children. Abraham died 8 August 1881 in Dexter, Mi

1-1-3-6 Charlotte DeCamp, no further information.

1-1-3-7 Daniel DeCamp, born 15 January 1797, married Rachel Alexander, died 1886

1-1-3-8 Morris DeCamp, born 23 October 1799, married Rachel Learn, died 14 April 1890, Chautauqua, NY.

1-1-3-9 Joseph DeCamp, born 23 October 1799, married Sylvia Brighman.

1-1-3-10 Clarissa DeCamp, married Simon Alexander.


One concrete clue concerning Hiram Pipes' ancestry has come to light. The 1850 census lists his birthplace as Surry County, North Carolina. In the 1880 census returns, all of the surviving children state that both their parents were born in North Carolina, not England and Germany as has been stated in some stories.

Hiram Pipes is the only Pipes in the index to the census for the state of North Carolina from 1820 to 1840. There are no Pipes' listed in the North Carolina Index for 1800 or 1810. The only census return with a Pipes householder other than the ones which show Hiram is the 1790 census showing John Pipes [a.k.a. Captain John Pipes], with no Junior or Senior designation, living in the Salisbury district of Surry County. Neither John Pipes nor any other person of the surname is found in the 1795 North Carolina State Census which admittedly is grossly incomplete.

The John Pipes household in 1790 consists of 3 white males over 16,1 male under 16, 6 females and no slaves. The one male under 16 should be Hiram Pipes, who it can be determined from the various census returns, was born about 1784. However, neither life nor genealogical research is that simple, and before we can make a statement with certainty, we need to do more research.

John Pipes left a will in 1821 in Kentucky which lists all of the children of his second marriage, none of whom is named Hiram. A study of the family indicates that John and Mary had four daughters and one son, Nathaniel, between 1781 and 1790, so it is assumed that Nathaniel is the one who is under 16. By examining the way the Surry County records are recorded, we can arrive at another conclusion. From 1780 until 1783, there is a definite designation given to John Pipes Senior and John Pipes Junior. From 1783 until 1789, the records refer only to John Pipes. In 1789, the designations of Senior and Junior again appear when John Pipes Jr. Is a chain carrier when a land grant is surveyed. Chain carriers were usually younger men.

The 1790 tax list shows only John Pipes with 250 acres and two white polls. Evidently he had a taxable in his household, possibly a son by his first marriage. It seems we have been dealing with three generations of men named John Pipes instead of two as we originally thought. After the elder John Pipes moved to South Carolina, there would be no need to separate the generations of men named John until the younger man named John came of an age to claim it.

In 1795, "Sarah Pipes, relict [widow] of Isaac Southard," appears in court in Surry County, North Carolina with John Pipes (no Junior or Senior designation) to show why the children of Isaac Southard should not be bound out. Who is this Sarah? An earlier connection with the Southard is found when Isaac Southard leaves a will dated 27 November 1790 in Surry County witnessed by John Pipes. Southard left his real property consisting of 200 acres to his wife, whose name is not given.

John Pipes Senior helped make an appraisal of the estate with the appraisal dated 1 August 1791. In 1792 Sarah Southard appears on the tax lists with 200 acres of land. In 1794, Sarah Pipes appears on the tax lists with the same 200 acres. The John Pipes in court in 1795 must have been the one we have been calling Captain John Pipes, a.k.a. known as John Pipes Jr.

John Pipes may have gone to court with Sarah because she was a relative, maybe even a daughter-in-law. In 1797, Sarah Pipes along with the other children of Samuel Carter (who married Susanna Pipes, sister of Captain John, as his second wife), granted power of attorney to Reuben Shores. This proves that Sarah is a daughter of Samuel Carter (and his unknown first wife).

The Carters as well as the Southards were also natives of New Jersey as were the Pipes'. In 1802 Hiram Carter was bound to James Brown in Wilkes County, next door neighbor of William Allison whose will Hiram Pipes witnessed in l809. At the next term of court, Hiram Carter appeared and had the binding revoked. It is believed that Hiram Carter and Hiram Pipes are one and the same person.

If Sarah (Carter) Southard married a Mr. Pipes as her second husband, which she must have to be listed as Sarah Pipes on the various records, and with all the other Pipes married or moved away, she must have married the son of John Pipes whom he listed as a poll in 1789 and probably one of the three males over 16 in his household in 1790.

John Pipes' appearance in Greene County, Pennsylvania in 1794 at the same time Sarah Pipes' name appears as a property owner in Surry County might indicate he had married and immediately deserted her. By 1801, Sarah Carter was married to Raleigh Poe. No record of a divorce has been found, but by 1801, John Pipes would have been missing from Surry county for seven years and could be considered legally dead.

If Hiram Carter is the same person who is later called Hiram Pipes, born about 1784, he could very easily have been born to Sarah Carter, who according to census returns, was born about 1766 or 1767. Perhaps his father was John Pipes, son of Captain John, born about 1766 or 1767 also. Both John and Sarah would have been in their teens at the time of Hiram's birth and they may have been thought to be too young to be forced into a "shotgun wedding." Sarah then married widower Isaac Southard by whom she had some children, and then Southard died about 1791. After Southard's death she and John married, perhaps under pressure from both their families, to "legitimize" their son. John may have deserted her, going to Pennsylvania, where he had relatives, assumed the status of a "single man," eventually married, and had a family.

Hiram Pipes who was living in Wilkes County under the name of Hiram Pipes may have known that his natural father was a Pipes and decided to use his rightful name. This would account for the story that was told that he chose his own name after he became an adult.

We have moved form the realm of factual information into speculation, but speculation based on some evidence. It has given the researchers something to work toward, and we may have even started some new family legends for genealogists of the future to prove or disprove.